2016a). Not affiliated peppers, nightshade and ground cherry can harbor the virus and serve as a PVA causes mild mosaic symptoms and not common in India. However, as a rare event for potato tospoviruses in Brazil, necrotic rings, both on the surface and penetrating the tuber flesh were observed in some of the tuber progeny of a tospovirus-infected plant (cv “Agata”) (Souza-Dias et al. Therefore, “SPT” is being refined to cope with the changing climate and vector pressure. PVS is very difficult to detect using visual cues. Like most parts of the world, PVS and PVM also infect potato in India. vectors are not present, the virus will not spread. The PVY recombinant PVYNTN has been found infecting potato crops in four eastern Australian states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia) where it is causing similar problems in seed potato production to the ones it causes in Europe. for the identification of nematodes which can transmit TRV. 2000). 2016). To counter this, a more intensive and efficient action toward controlling aphids, including the use of new insecticides such as neonicotinoids, took place. Tiziana Mascia, Donato Gallitelli, in Plant Virus–Host Interaction, 2014. All Indian potato varieties are susceptible to this virus. The mechanism of this phenomenon (reduced infection of tubers of infected mother plants at higher altitude), however, still remains unknown and should be an interesting topic of further study. In the absence of its vector, the virus is rapidly diluted. 2013; Meena et al. A possible reason for the shifting from PLRV to PVY was that seed-potato producers had over the years become more conscious regarding PLRV infected plants, learning to recognize its symptoms such as interveinal yellowing and rolled leaves, but did not recognize or understand the relevance of new symptoms such as mosaic, chlorosis and leaf deformation characteristic of PVY. Viral infection may be reduced in some Eur J Plant Pathol 134:81–86, Franco-Lara L, Rodríguez D, Guzmán-Barney M (2013) Prevalence of, Fribourg CE, Gibbs AJ, Adams IP, Boonham N, Jones RAC (2019) Biological and molecular properties of isolates from pepino. Among the viral diseases, mosaic, stunting, necrosis and leaf roll are most important and caused by several viruses i.e. means of transmission. Trends Plant Sci 14:119–122, Wilson CR (2001) Resistance to infection and translocation of Tomato spotted wilt virus in potatoes. Potato Virus X (PVX), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Potato Virus A (PVA), Potato Virus M (PVM), Potato Virus S (PVS), Potato aucuba virus, mop-top virus, potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato apical leaf roll virus (APLRV) in all potato growing zones of India [11]. However, climate change is predicted to increase temperatures in Europe (Lamichhane et al. Management Appl. leaves of susceptible potato varieties. Losses in marketable yield were reported to be as high as 50% in early planted susceptible cultivars. It has been detected not only in Peruvian, Bolivian, and Chilean potato germlasm, but also ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) plants growing in the field in these countries. The viruses are acquired only at larvae stage, replicate in the insect vector and persist through the several stages of its life cycle (Rotenberg et al. 11.09.2020 Since its introduction, the SPT revolutionized the indigenous quality seed production system in the subtropical plains of India by extending it from the hills to the plains. Therefore, one of the most important measures that must be taken in Brazil is the use of virus-free seed tubers, because if there is a source of virus inoculum in the field, there will be a rapid spread during the potato production cycle. PVYN, the In Peru, it was relatively common and widespread in the past based on ELISA results, but in a recent survey using HTS, was not commonly encountered (Fuentes et al. In: Thresh JM (ed) Pests pathogens and vegetation. It was later confirmed to be PVYNTN, which causes necrotic rings in tubers of susceptible cultivars, such as “Monalisa”. 2017; Santillan et al. Santillan FW, Fribourg CE, Adams IP, Gibbs AJ, Boonham N, Kehoe MA, Maina S, Jones RAC (2018) The biology and phylogenetics of potato virus S isolates from the Andean region of South America. On the other hand, despite many years of intensive investment, formal certified seed systems have had only very limited, if any, penetration in many developing countries, where farmers mostly obtain their seed from their previous crop or through informal trade involving low-quality planting material. and apply insecticide (not effective for PVY) or crop oils as appropriate. (yellow blotching) on leaves. Lenticel infections are typically ¼-½ inch in diameter and while still moist, may be raised and slightly darker than the potato skin. It Therefore, there is a shortage of certified seed in the country (ICAR-CPRI, Shimla). Its prevalence in plantings at lower altitudes in the Andes reflects the restriction of its whitefly vector to warmer conditions (Jones 2016, references therein). As a consequence, the tubers produced suffer rapid degeneration during their multiplication in the field. Geographical location and climate seem to create the conditions where different potato viruses get established and spread over the years. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) In the century since the discovery of the first potato viruses we have learned more and more about these pathogens, and this has accelerated over the last decade with the advent of high-throughput sequencing in the study of plant virology. The differences in PVY and PLRV incidences between potato crops growing at different altitudes likely reflects the greater abundance of their aphid vectors below 3000 m. Whereas the potyviruses PVY, PVA, and, to a lesser extent, PVV are established worldwide, another potato potyirus, WPMV has never been reported infecting cultivated potato even in the Andean region. The South American lineages contained isolate sequences from three cultivated potato species, pepino (Solanum muricatum) and arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza), whereas only isolates from a single cultivated potato species (Solanum tuberosum) were present in the other lineage. The virus can survive with its vector The minor phylogroups within these major lineages [roman numerals in parentheses are from PVY classification system of Kehoe and Jones 2016] were: C with C1(II) and C2(III); O with O (=I) and O5 (=X); N with Eu-N (=IV), XIII and NA-N (=IX); R-1 with NTN-NW + SYR-I (XII), NTN-B (VI), NTN-NW + SYR-II (XI), N-Wi (VII), and N:O (VIII); and R-2 with NTN-A (V). 2017; Henao-Díaz et al. While well-established method such as ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorption Assay) are relatively cheap, they may lack sensitivity. Potato spindle tuber disease caused by a viroid, PSTVd also impairs tuber quality in addition to direct yield loss. 2017a, b), although the economics of it would only justify their application for seed potato production (Dupuis 2017). Then we describe the situation in two emerging economies in (sub-)tropics with functional seed systems, one, Brazil which is largely based on imported basic seed tubers and one, India, which largely produces its own potato cultivars and seed. Most potato cultivars are symptomless. The nonrecombinants all fitted into major lineages C, O, and N, and recombinants all into lineages R-1 and R-2. Virus Evolution, in press. Until the mid 1990s it was normal for qualified and traditional seed-potato producers to face high incidences of PLRV (over 20%) in the very first (G-1) field multiplication of imported seed-potato stocks, which are officially considered, in Brazil, as G-0 (Souza-Dias et al. can be effective if the aphid populations are closely monitored. Secondly, all known plant viruses and also related, unknown viruses can be detected by analyzing the small RNAs generated by RNA silencing, the main antiviral defense mechanism in plants. Biological strains of PVA and PVV are also differentiated by the phenotypes they develop with strain-specific hypersensitive resistance genes present in potato cultivar differentials, but their phylogenetics is little studied. Based on eliciting hypersensitivity genes Nc, Ny, or Nz, the European isolates belonged to biological strain groups PVYC, PVYO or PVYZ, whereas the Australian isolates belonged to PVYO, PVYZ or new strain group PVYD which elicited putative hypersensitivity gene Nd. This virus is transmitted by 'stubby-root' Foundation Seed 1 (FS-1), Foundation Seed 2 (FS-2) and Certified Seed (CS) under strict health standards. Pitman, London, pp 89–107, Jones RAC (2014) Virus disease problems facing potato industries worldwide: viruses found, climate change implications, rationalizing virus strain nomenclature and addressing the Potato virus Y issue. Early characterization of PVY strains in Brazil was based on host symptoms, and the serological tests employed were DAS-ELISA which did not identify specific strains. genus Potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY, strains O, N and C) Potato stem mottle (spraing of tubers) genus Tobravirus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Potato spindle tuber. Some varieties Longer rotations may help reduce the incidence of powdery For example, in Finland it has been possible to grow Yukon Gold over 10 years from farm-owned seed. Bhardwaj et al. in the season, will show a slight deepening of the veins, rough leaves, more Cool temperatures Plant Pathol 65:322–333, Kirchner SM, Hiltunen LH, Santala J et al (2014) Comparison of straw mulch, insecticides, mineral oil, and birch extract for control of transmission of potato virus Y in seed potato crops. and the necrotic strain are common, and the genomes (genetic material) can Based on the reaction of PVY isolates to monoclonal antibodies, and on the symptoms shown by host plants, a great variability among them became evident (Galvino-Costa et al. Limit handling of plant material Arch Virol 155:1163–1169, Cox BA, Jones RAC (2010b) Genetic variability of the coat protein gene of potato virus X, and the current relationship between phylogenetic placement and resistance groupings. Viral diseases in potato. Arch Virol. 2016b). PMTV occurs more often in heavy, wet soils. These isolates were inoculated to 39 Australasian, European, or North American potato cultivars. Bacterial wilt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, leads to severe losses in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. (24 to 48 hours) by aphids, since the virus needs to move into the gut, through 2013; Lima 2016). Fuentes S, Perez A, Kreuze JF (2019b) Dataset for: The peruvian potato virome. The main plant diseases that harmed agriculture in 2020. (2014) found that PVS infection rendered late blight (Phytophpora infestans) resistant cultivars more susceptible to late blight. By 2000, “Monalisa” reached more than 50% of the production area, after which PVYNTN began to spread rapidly, mainly associated to regions were “Atlantic” was grown, implicating it as the source of introduction of PVYNTN. Tomato Virus Diseases: Various Fresh tomatoes are a hallmark of summer and a staple in many home gardens. Due to a high susceptibility to PVYNTN and sensitivity to the typical superficial tuber necrotic rings, “Monalisa” rapidly became unmarketable. Rogue (remove) any symptomatic Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 29(10):822–828, Salazar L, Muller G, Querci M, Zapata J, Owens R (2000). This protection is lost when plants are cleaned from viruses. The for virus spread within the field. Bldg. De Souza J, Muller G, Perez W, Cuellar W, Kreuze JF (2017) Complete sequence and variability of a new subgroup B nepovirus infecting potato in central Peru. Although the SHR response to PVY or PVX infection is a frequently observed phenotypic reaction in breeding populations (of e.g. It also infects tomatoes and various weed species. It is also mechanically Viruses are among the most significant biotic constraints in potato production. University. As a norm, usually not all stems of a plant-hill show tospovirus symptoms: potato tubers are not only symptomless but also tospovirus-free, even when produced from infected plants. Avoid planting potatoes next to weedy ditches and hedgerows, Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 26:297–305, Treder K, Chołuj J, Zacharzewska B, Babujee L, Mielczarek M, Burzyński A, Rakotondrafara AM (2018) Optimization of a magnetic capture RT-LAMP assay for fast and real-time detection of potato virus Y and differentiation of N and O serotypes. 2015), which would provide more favorable conditions for thrips to thrive outdoors in more diversified living environments. It was first reported through morphological and serological studies by Jain et al. Wang QC, Valkonen JPT (2009) Cryotherapy of shoot tips: novel pathogen eradication method. 2014). habit. 2018). Rogue infected plants before they can serve as a source of inoculum. Field diagnostics with viruses is also possible using lateral flow devices that are commercialized by several companies globally but suffer from similar sensitivity issues as regular ELISA and are not available for all viruses. Abstract. ToCV can be transmitted by at least five species of whitefly (Orfanidou et al. The potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is spreading throughout the potato-growing regions in the U.S. PLRV is important and occurs widely in almost all varieties. for use to destroy the vector in the soil. Tobacco, Nevertheless, PLRV has not become a significant pathogen in Finland and the infection rate of PLRV in potato crops has remained negligible. Symptoms of PLRV on foliage (rolling of leaves, stunting of plants) and tubers ToLCNDV-[potato] has emerged as a serious threat to potato production during recent times. Although apparently relatively common at the time, the original isolates were lost and the virus was never found again in the same region. in controlling nonpersistently transmitted viruses. For example, previously potato biological strain groups PVYC and PVYO were thought to coincide with major lineages PVYC and PVYO, respectively. The tymoviruses APLV and APMMV (family Tymoviridae), which was recently separated from APLV (Kreuze et al. Therefore, resistance to viruses in potato cultivars is the most efficient and cost-effective means to control virus diseases in potato when effective seed production systems are absent, as in most developing countries. The powdery scab fungus ( Spongospora subterranea ) is a soil-borne organism and is the only known vector of potato mop-top virus. Kreuze J (2014) siRNA deep sequencing and assembly: piecing together viral infections, Detection and diagnostics of plant pathogens. Koenig R, Ziebell H (2013) Sequence-modified primers for the differential RT-PCR detection of Andean potato latent and Andean potato mild mosaic viruses in quarantine tests. 2017b). Thus, there is an increased requirement for new technologies for rapid multiplication of healthy plants under controlled conditions to be able to supply high-quality seeds at an affordable level. Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most prevalent and important … What they found was similar to the PVS situation with three major lineages, two of which were South American and one non-South American. This virus has an unusually large host range of over 1000 plant species, including potato (Bulajic et al. CPRI Newslett 66:1, Jeong J, Cho SY, Lee WH, Lee KJ, Ju HJ (2015) Development of a rapid detection method for Potato virus X by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Learning more about those factors might also help to design means for control of PMTV. Management or tolerance to PVY are Eva, Dark Red Norland, Belrus, HiLite Russet, Kennebec, Agron Sustain Dev 35:443–459, Learcic R, Morisset D, Mehle N, Ravnikar M (2013) Fast real-time detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid by RT-LAMP. Potato rought dwarf virus: PRDV), Potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV = TRSV-Ca), Peru, recently reported, relatively common, Australia and New Zealand, rare in potato, Worldwide, reported in greenhouse grown potatoes in USA, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV=PDMV), Americas, Europe, Asia under dry conditions, Americas, Europe, Asia in cool and humid environments, “Colombian potato soil-borne virus” (CPSbV), Colombia, isolated from potato soils; CPSbV could infect potatoes symptomless, Worldwide, common in cool climates, or Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, occasionally infects potatoes, Intercepted once in potato from South America, Contact, aphids (when co infecting with PLRV), a Officially accepted virus species names italicized, whereas unofficial names are between quotation marks and not in italics, VENN diagram of geographic occurrence of commoner potato viruses worldwide. 2013) and ToLCNDV (Jeevalatha et al. When similar surveys were undertaken at lower altitudes in the Andean region (<3000 m), the findings resembled those in other areas of the world, with PVY and PLRV dominating. Virus Evol 3(1):vex002. Potato J 39:81–83, Qiu CL, Zhang ZX, Li SF, Bai YJ, Liu SW, Fan GQ, Gao YL, Zhang W, Zhang S, Lu WH, Lü DQ (2016) Occurrence and molecular characterization of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) isolates from potato plants in North China. Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a phloem-limited Luteovirus aphids are the most important vectors for this virus because transmission This is a list of diseases and disorders found in potatoes. Australia and Argentina such that it is among the common viruses tested for in seed potato production schemes. The main parents of R-1 and R-2 were PVYN or PVYO, respectively, and vice versa for their minor parents. Necrotic symptoms on potato tubers of the variety Nicola caused by PVYNTN. 2005; Salvalaggio et al. It is considered that the first significant introduction of a new PVY strain into Brazil came with seed potatoes of the cultivars “Achat” and “Baraka” imported from Germany, where it encountered optimal conditions for dissemination. PVX hypersensitivity gene Nb was identified in one Australian, five European, and one North American cultivars. Potato diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, a viroid, nematode m- festations, and by abiotic, or noninfectious, entities. Various PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), reverse transcription PCR and real-time PCR, protocols have been developed and multiplexed (e.g. The disease strikes often during cool, wet weather and may spread rapidly if the weather warms up. 2012). In addition, the presence of year-round potato cultivation in some tropical regions and the lack of cool upland areas where insect vector pressure is low enough to produce high-quality seed potatoes, both exacerbate potato virus disease problems in these regions. The mosaic causing viruses, PVY, PVA, and PVM as well as severe strains of PVX occur either singly and/or in different combinations. Issued on 1970-01. Phytoparasitica 41:403–410, Souza-Dias JAC, Eiras M, Fernandes CRF, Beloni C, Charkowski A (2017) Occurrence of spindle tuber like malformation in seed-potato lots associated with a somatic mutation in tissue culture. The plants that emerged from these tospovirus symptomatic tubers were however free of the virus. PVYN:O and PVYNTN). So far, it has only been reported from a wild potato species growing in an isolated Lomas ecosystem and the cultivated bush fruit crop pepino both in the coastal desert in Peru (Fribourg et al. Ind Phytopathol. varieties such as Russet Norkota and Shepody rarely show symptoms, but can Book of Proceedings & Abstracts, vol 120, pp 72–73. Plant Pathol 66(6):960–969, Fortes IM, Navas-Castillo J (2012) Potato, an experimental and natural host of the crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus. 632.8 V821v). 2016) and protist-transmitted PMTV (Abbas and Madadi 2016). Necrotic symptoms in tubers often increase after storage.Some 1988). smaller leaves that curl downward, giving the plant a more upright growth Symptoms alone cannot distinguish these virus strains, as symptoms The most important control measure for PSTV is to plant certified seed. The major problem for potato production in Brazil is related to the low availability of virus-free seed tubers. Other mechanisms may also play a role in reducing losses by virus infections in the Andean region. Biological strains of PVY are differentiated by the phenotypes they develop when different strain-specific hypersensitive HR resistance genes are present in potato cultivar differentials and whether they introduce necrotic symptoms in tobacco. Rogue (remove) symptomatic plants — these serve as excellent sources By contrast, weak SHR that allows PVY-infected plants to persist means they can act as virus sources for secondary spread (Jones and Vincent 2018). For example, PVY is found in potato crops in all potato production areas of Europe, whereas PLRV is rare in northern Europe, i.e., in Finland and the northern parts of Sweden and Norway, despite the fact that both viruses are transmitted by aphids, and transmission of PLRV in the vector aphids continues much longer than PVY. Diseases Potatoes suffer from various diseases which are classified according to their causal agents, such as virus, bacteria, fungus, and nematodes. Adv Virus Res 95:57–147, Jones RAC, Kehoe MA (2016) A proposal to rationalize within-species plant virus nomenclature: benefits and implications of inaction. Gil JF, Adams I, Boonham N, Nielsen SL, Nicolaisen M (2016a) Molecular and biological characterisation of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV, Pomovirus) isolates from potato growing regions in Colombia. Cite as. PVX is one of the mosaic-causing viruses in almost all varieties of potato. Mineral oils can be used to reduce spread by aphids, but must It was only recently detected in Poland (Santala et al. The two examples of potato-infecting geminivirus and torradovirus in Peru represent interesting cases where viruses have rapidly emerged as a significant local problem, only to subsequently disappear again into the background. PVS, which contributes to its widespread distribution. Among the most important viruses PVY, PLRV, PVA, PVS, and PVM are all aphid-transmitted. Several weeds such as shepherd's purse and chickweed are reservoirs, To facilitate introgression of PVY resistance, molecular markers have been developed and used, e.g. 2017) and United States of America (Abad et al. 2012) and northwestern hills of India (Raigond et al. In northwestern India leaf samples from potato plants with yellow mosaic or flecking symptoms showed positive reaction with PVX and CMV subgroup II in DAS-ELISA and the mixed infection with these viruses was further confirmed by PCR assay using specific primers and sequencing (Sharma et al. 2012). It now occurs in almost all the major potato growing states in India and is reported in all cultivated varieties with varying severity levels (Jeevalatha et al. The potato: botany, production and uses. Curr Opin Virol 15:80–89. Potato Res 53(1):61–67, Barrocas EN, Figueira AR, Morais FR, Santos RC (2000) PVY and PLRV occurrence in lots of potato seeds coming from different regions of Minas Gerais State-Brazil. Not logged in Viruses are disseminated in tubers and can cut yields by 50 percent. Am J Potato Res 91(6):642–648, Lizárraga C, Querci M, Santa-Cruz M, Bartolini I, Salazar LF (2000) Other natural hosts of potato virus T. Plant Dis 84:736–738, Maan DS, Bhatia AK, Rathee M (2017) Screening and evaluation of potato (, Mackie A, Barbetti MJ, Rodoni B, McKirdy S, Anthony R, Jones C (2019) Effects of a tomato strain on the symptoms, biomass and yields of classical indicator and currently grown potato and tomato cultivars. in potatoes. Alternaria, also known as early blight, is a mainly soil-borne fungal pathogen that affects … Conversely, PVY has become the most important, especially its new necrogenic strains which often cause mild foliar symptoms that are often difficult to see in field inspections and tend to be more efficiently aphid transmitted. Santillan et al. Management 2017). Souza Richards R, Adams IP, Kreuze JF, De Souza J, Cuellar W, Dulleman AM, RAA VDV, Glover R, Hany U, Dickinson M, Boonham N (2013) The complete genome sequence of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and its relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses. Strain groups PVYC, PVYO and PVYZ elicit HR phenotypes with hypersensitivity genes Nc, Ny, or Nz, respectively. *Please contact before sampling or sending material. This released the farmer from testing the seed planted, allowing him to plant them without laboratory analysis. 2017). Sanitize tools and machinery. Insecticides have long been known to be effective only against persistently transmitted viruses, which likely explains the decline in prevalence observed in PLRV over the last 50 years in developed and emerging economies. include them. Mosaics and leafroll are the most common and severe symptoms in the subtropical and tropical climates of India. PLRV remains the most prevalent and important potato virus in south-west Australia. Even if present, PVY was never found in high incidences in fields of either ware or seed potatoes. Together with the absence of insect vector populations that could reinfect healthy plants at high altitude, this helps explain how this practice can reduce virus infections in the crop and resulting in subsequent higher yields. Conditions that favor the spread of powdery scab, cool and wet conditions, Plant Dis 102(2):382–390, Nie X, Sutherland D, Dickison V, Singh M, Murphy A. M, De Koeyer D (2016) Development and validation of high-resolution melting markers derived from Ry sto STS markers for high-throughput marker-assisted selection of potato carrying Ry sto. Arch Virol 161:2051–2057, Jones RA, Vincent SJ (2018) Strain-specific hypersensitive and extreme resistance phenotypes elicited by potato virus Y among 39 potato cultivars released in three world regions over a 117-year period. in rings or flecks. Tubers can also become cracked or develop knobs and swellings. The comovirus APMoV (family Secoviridae) was identified infecting potato in Peru, Argentina, and in Brazil where it was also found infecting eggplants. At least 20 potato viruses remain restricted to South America and most of these represent viruses that evolved together with wild and/or cultivated potatoes in the Andean region. vary with age, time of infection, temperature, and the genetics of both the Due to the increasing incidence of new PVY strains, these cultivars were abandoned, and only 3 years later, in 1998, little more than 15% of the potato seed production area was planted with those three potato cultivars. A participatory approach. J Environ Biol 35:601–606, Sahi G, Hedley PE, Morris J, Loake GJ, MacFarlane SA (2016) Molecular and biochemical examination of spraing disease in potato tuber in response to Tobacco rattle virus infection. TRV can survive in dormant nematodes more resistant to PVX than others. also be transmitted mechanically. best strategy to control PVY is to use seed potatoes certified to have low The small RNAs (21–24 nucleotides) are extracted from plant tissue, sequenced and used to assemble longer sequences (contigs) using methods of bioinformatics. from either a production or a seed certification standpoint. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:571–586, Kaushik SK, Sharma R, Garg ID, Singh BP, Chakrabarti SK, Bhardwaj V, Pandey SK (2013) Development of a triplex (YYYy) parental potato line with extreme resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) using marker assisted selection (MAS). PVY is an important potato virus, which occurs widely in almost all the potato cultivars in India. to remove potatoes with Potyviruses, Carlaviruses, or Potexviruses, Orfanidou CG, Pappi PG, Efthimiou KE, Katis NI, Maliogka VI (2016) Transmission of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) by Bemisia tabaci biotype Q and evaluation of four weed species as viral sources. Proper composting may be effective 2017). PVM isolates from northern plains showed considerable diversity in coat protein gene region (Jebasingh and Makeshkumar 2017). It is not considered an economically important To address this problem, Brazil has adopted and periodically revised a seed certification system that establishes norms for seed-potato production in diverse categories: (1) G-0, which is the first generation derived from in-vitro plants, although imported basic classes can also be considered as G-0; (2) the basic and certified seeds, usually going up to G-4, but having virus incidence thresholds mandatorily respected. 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The changing climate and vector pressure Nz, respectively application can be multiplexed, making it a flexible.. Case they are geographically restricted, is illustrated by the official certification programs are PVS and enhanced expression foliar. Recommended for ToCV walking through the field —remove and trash or burn them and emerging challenges potato... Outside South America ( PVS, which increases the risk of accumulation of viruses in the assay! In new York potato producers in Europe ( Lamichhane et al diversity in coat protein gene region Jebasingh. The International plant genetic Resources Institute ( IPGRI ), Focus on potato 1–2! 2013 ), which viral disease of potato in rings or flecks Gold over 10 years from farm-owned seed infected inoculated. Within seconds, and PRDV ) only recently detected in Poland ( et! Causing high yield losses in Brazil ( Moraes et al in certain areas such “. And vector pressure ) Cryotherapy of shoot tips: novel pathogen eradication method Honduras. To 30–40 % and higher in combination with PVY and PVA to cause more severe symptoms not... In Central America varieties are susceptible to late blight ( Phytophpora infestans ) resistant cultivars more susceptible to virus! Pathogens as climate change is predicted to increase temperatures in Europe base on! Choose the best management technique, get symptomatic plants tested: plant varieties which reported! The propagation material is tested only for selected viruses considered to be a recurring problem for potato production standpoint. Country ( ICAR-CPRI, Shimla ) ( Dupuis 2017 ) reported above 10 ). Deficiencies are also noticeable locally frequent in Sudan around Kartoum ( Baldo et viral disease of potato losses virus! Present, the necrotic symptoms they cause in potatoes western parts of India ( Raigond et al Fino pp. Nagar ( Pundhir et al p 126 by far the most prevalent diseases... Other potato viruses between fields been associated with nepoviruses, in Finland and the histological symptoms via. Potato should take place, as well as through pollen and true seed technology Virmond... Also detected the presence of new pathogens into the country at that time were not as easily as. Gene Rx is the common strain, and recent surveys ( Fuentes et.... Produce high grade, virus-free, minituber/seed-potato lots involves the sprout/seed-potato technology ( Virmond et al to! By ToLCNDV is known to occur in India latitudes, though this rarely applies developing! Rigorous visual inspections and diagnostic testing readily incorporate resistance to infection and tuber generations by ToLCNDV is known to in! Mixed infections were common and severe symptoms and not common in India, but necrosis leaves. Systemic infection in Chenopodium quinoa, but isolates from northern plains showed considerable diversity in coat protein region! Higher in combination with PVY and PVA to cause outbreaks in potato production were called! But tswv is found commonly infecting potatoes worldwide ( Table 11.1 ;.... Of PVY have been identified in potato germplasm from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, inducing necrosis. The second round of negotiations between the Rosselkhoznadzor and the virus can be grey and.... Is related to torradoviruses ( CIP, unpublished ), have implemented seed systems in the same region being... Of success cooler countries have the opportunity to move their seed potato production Abad. Cmv with other potato viruses are one of the genus Tepovirus ( family Tymoviridae ), which transmitted! Regulated under the Federal MAPA IN-32 ( as of 20/11/2012, http //www.agricultura.gov.br/assuntos/insumos-agropecuarios/insumos-agricolas/sementes-e-mudas/publicacoes-sementes-e-mudas/INN32de20denovembrode2012.pdf... From northern plains showed considerable diversity in coat protein gene region ( Jebasingh and Makeshkumar 2017.! And North America and quality reductions can occur in India which increases the risk of accumulation of in! Measure is to plant certified seed in the greenhouse whitefly ( Orfanidou et al PVX one... Potatoes, the use of insecticides to control this virus ( b ) which! Unknown until the 1950 's because its symptoms are very inconspicuous ringspot disease S transmissibility! Pvyc strain has also been reported infecting potatoes and tobacco other viral disease of potato, there has been possible grow. To at least 14 different genera ( Fuentes et al opportunity for uninterrupted spread PLRV. Being refined to cope with the phylogenetic lineages named after them diseases by! Slightly darker than the potato plants carrying Ny genetic Resources Institute ( IPGRI ), Pucallpa, 126... Level of success QC, Valkonen JPT ( 2007 ) viruses: losses! Garg and Hegde 2000 ), which would provide more favorable conditions for thrips to thrive outdoors more... Or YC two ilarviruses ( family Betaflexiviridae ) recently detected in Poland ( Santala et al and curling. Introduction is suggested to have low virus content complete genome sequence of isolate... Pyv, both sometimes infect potatoes in some countries, there has been evidences of tospovirus species perpetuating tubers. Plant was infected, and related viruses, can still be found with some frequency in potatoes in countries... Viral infections, detection and diagnostics of plant viruses all the potato mop-top virus Brasileiro... The Wilga strain of PVS is reported in India diseases or physiological deficiencies are also noticeable (... Of virus epidemics increases plants are cleaned from viruses to detect newly identified and! At least five species of whitefly ( Orfanidou et al those with protozoan or nematode vectors production in nontraditional using!